Heat transfer and fluid flow in a two-dimensional enclosure filled with nanofluids is investigated using multi-phase LBM, where the influences of external and internal forces, for example, the Bromnian force, gravitational force, drag force, buoyancy force and the interactions among particles on the molecular levels, are considered. The velocity field and the temperature field are obtained at different nanoparticles volume fractions, different buoyancy parameters. The simulation results show that nanofluids could enhance the heat transfer compared to pure liquid.

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