We report finite volume simulations of the phonon Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) for heat conduction in periodic nanowire composites. Models for phonon transport across heterogeneous interfaces are developed, and simulations are performed over a wide range of Knudsen numbers. Conditions are identified under which the thermal conductivity of the composite material is less than the bulk thermal conductivity of the individual host materials and under which the alloy limit of thermal conductivity is recovered. We also compute the length scale needed to achieve bulk behavior in nanoscale composites. The results of this study are expected to inform and improve applications such as thermoelectric devices and flexible macroelectronics.

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