There is a strong need to improve our current capabilities in thermal management and electronic cooling, since estimates indicate that IC power density level could reach 50 W/cm2 in near future. This paper presents several possible closed and open loop cooling schemes for thermal management of electronic equipment in data centers. Additionally, analytical modeling of two kinds of direct expansion refrigeration cooling evaporator and a secondary liquid cooling fan coil heat exchanger is incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to analyze a refrigeration cooled high heat density electronic and computer data center installed on a raised floor. Both models incorporate an accurate tube-by-tube thermal hydraulic modeling of the heat exchanger. The refrigeration coil analysis incorporates a multi region heat exchanger analysis for a more precise modeling of two phase refrigerant flow in the evaporator. The single phase secondary loop fan coil heat exchanger modeling uses an effectiveness method for regional modeling of the spotcooling coil. Using an iterative method, results of the heat exchanger modeling is simultaneously incorporated in the CFD model and an optimal design of spot cooling heat exchanger is developed.   This paper was also originally published as part of the Proceedings of the ASME 2005 Pacific Rim Technical Conference and Exhibition on Integration and Packaging of MEMS, NEMS, and Electronic Systems.

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