A comprehensive axisymmetric model of the coupled thermal-electrical-mechanical analysis predicting weld nugget development and residual stresses for the resistance spot welding process of Al-alloys is developed. The model estimates the heat generation at the faying surface, the workpiece-electrode interface, and the Joule heating of the workpiece and electrode. The phase change due to melting in the weld pool is considered. The contact area and its pressure distribution at both the faying surface and the electrode-workpiece interface are determined from a coupled thermal-mechanical model using a finite element method. The knowledge of the interface pressure provides accurate prediction of the interfacial heat generation. For the numerical model, temperature dependent thermal, electrical and mechanical properties are used. The proposed model can successfidly calculate the nugget diameter and thickness, and predict the residual stresses and the elastic-plastic deformation history. The calculated nugget shape and the deformation of sheets based on the model are compared with the experimental data. The computed residual stresses approach the distribution of experimental measurement of the residual stress.

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