Directed Metal/Material Deposition (DMD) process is one of additive manufacturing processes based on laser cladding process. A full understanding of laser cladding process is a must to make the DMD process consistent and robust. A two dimensional mathematical model of laser cladding was developed to understand the influence of fluid flow to the mixing, dilution, and deposition dimension, incorporating melting, solidification, and evaporation phenomena. The fluid flow in the melt pool driven by thermal capillary convection and energy balance at liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interface was investigated and the impact of the droplets on the melt pool shape and ripple was studied. Dynamic motion, development of melt pool and the formation of cladding layer were simulated.

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