The smoldering of cigarettes without drawing is described by a simple analytical model. A burning cigarette is assumed to be divided in 4 zones: unburned tobacco, dry tobacco, char and ash, separated by infinitesimally thin fronts of drying, pyrolysis and char oxidation. Circumferential heat losses and the convective-diffusive processes in the boundary layer are considered. A set of non-linear algebraic equations is solved to determine smoldering rates, drying lengths and pyrolysis lengths and to obtain the profiles of temperature. The influence coefficients of several parameters on smolder characteristics are calculated. Theoretical burn rates have shown a good agreement to experiments.
Natural Smoldering of Cigarettes
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Costa, FDS. "Natural Smoldering of Cigarettes." Proceedings of the ASME 2003 Heat Transfer Summer Conference. Heat Transfer: Volume 2. Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. July 21–23, 2003. pp. 87-93. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/HT2003-47311
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