This paper reports some of the results of our tests for the development of a high heat flux cooling system for thermal management of high power electronics. Our objective is to develop a practical design solution for achieving 1000 W/cm2 cooling. To achieve such high heat transfer rates, we have pursued and combined design advantages of a microchannel heat exchanger, high heat fluxes associated with forced convective nucleate boiling, and the use of a nanoparticles laden fluid for enhancement of heat transfer. A laboratory test module was designed, built, and tested to verify its performance. The experimental system employed sub-cooled as well as saturated forced convection boiling heat transfer in a high aspect ratio parallel microchannel heat sink. The working fluids tested were water and a selection of ceramic-based nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids). The system was observed to readily dissipate heat fluxes in excess of 275 W/cm2 of substrate, while maintaining the substrate at or below 125°C. For optimized fin geometry, the current conditions would result in greater than 500 W/cm2. While the use of nanofluids was intended for boiling enhancement to push the envelop beyond 1000 W/cm2, we discerned limited improvement in the overall heat transfer rate. Future studies are planned for further exploitation of nanoparticles for enhancement of convective nucleate boiling.
Forced Convective Boiling in Microchannels for kW/cm2 Electronics Cooling
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Faulkner, DJ, & Shekarriz, R. "Forced Convective Boiling in Microchannels for kW/cm2 Electronics Cooling." Proceedings of the ASME 2003 Heat Transfer Summer Conference. Heat Transfer: Volume 2. Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. July 21–23, 2003. pp. 329-336. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/HT2003-47160
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