An Eulerian-Lagrangian numerical method is used to simulate the cyclone separator experiment by Hoffmann  which is operated under low solid loadings. Comparisons are made with data from for overall separation efficiency and on a size-distribution basis, i.e., ‘cut-grade’. The Arena-flow computational approach is a transient, three-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) numerical method where the dynamics of both the continuum fluid and millions of discrete particle ‘clouds’ are solved using Eulerian and Lagrangian representations, respectively. The Arena-flow software allows for any distribution of particle types, sizes, and density. The three-dimensional transient simulations show excellent agreement with measured data which have cyclone efficiencies on the order of 85%. The CFD analysis reveal details that cannot be experimentally measured, such as internal particle size segregation, wall effects, vortex entrainment, particle-to-particle interactions and agglomeration.
Multiphase Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Dense-Phase Flows in Cyclone Separators
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Snider, D, Williams, K, & Johnson, RA. "Multiphase Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Dense-Phase Flows in Cyclone Separators." Proceedings of the ASME 2004 Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference. Volume 3. Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. July 11–15, 2004. pp. 777-785. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/HT-FED2004-56665
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