To predict motions of micro and macro free surfaces simultaneously within gas-liquid flows, we have developed a particle/CIP (Cubic Interpolated Propagation) hybrid method. The micro free surfaces (smaller than grid sizes) were simulated by the particle method, and the macro free surfaces (larger than grid sizes) were simulated by the CIP method. And then the particles used in the particle method were assigned near the macro free surfaces by using volume fraction of liquid that was calculated by the CIP method. The developed method was used to predict the collapse of a liquid column. Namely, it predicted both the large deformation of the liquid column and the fragmentation of it simultaneously, and the predicted configurations of the liquid column agreed well with the experimentally measured ones. It was also used to predict breakup of liquid films in a fuel injector used for engines of automobiles, and the predicted profile of the liquid film was sharp in an air region where the thickness of the liquid film became thinner than the grid sizes.
Particle/CIP Hybrid Method for Predicting Motions of Micro and Macro Free Surfaces
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Ishii, E, Ishikawa, T, & Tanabe, Y. "Particle/CIP Hybrid Method for Predicting Motions of Micro and Macro Free Surfaces." Proceedings of the ASME 2004 Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference. Volume 3. Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. July 11–15, 2004. pp. 419-427. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/HT-FED2004-56142
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