Emission standard agencies are coming up with more stringent regulations on soot, given its adverse effect on human health. It is expected that Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will soon place stricter regulations on allowed levels of the size of soot particles from aircraft jet engines. Since, aircraft engines operate at varying operating pressure, temperature and air-fuel ratios, soot fraction changes from condition to condition. Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are playing a key role in understanding the complex mechanism of soot formation and the factors affecting it.
In the present work, soot formation prediction from numerical analyses for turbulent kerosene-air diffusion jet flames at five different operating pressures in the range of 1 atm. to 7 atm. is presented. The geometrical and test conditions are obtained from Young’s thesis . Coupled combustion-soot simulations are performed for all the flames using steady diffusion flamelet model for combustion and Mass-Brookes-Hall 2-equation model for soot with a 2D axisymmetric mesh. Combustion-Soot coupling is required to consider the effect of soot-radiation interaction. Simulation results in the form of axial and radial profiles of temperature, mixture fraction and soot volume fraction are compared with the corresponding experimental measured profiles. The results for temperature and mixture fraction compare well with the experimental profiles. Predicted order of magnitude and the profiles of the soot volume fraction also compare well with the experimental results. The correct trend of increasing the peak soot volume fraction with increasing the operating pressure is also captured.