The performance of liquid fuel atomizer has direct effects on combustion efficiency, pollutant emission and stability. Pressure swirl atomizer, or simplex atomizer, is widely used in liquid fuel combustion devices in aircraft and power generation industry. A computational, experimental, and theoretical study is conducted to predict its performance. The Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian method with finite volume scheme is employed in the CFD model. Internal flow characteristics of the simplex atomizer as well as its performance parameters such as discharge coefficient, spray angle and film thickness are predicted. A temporal linear stability analysis is performed for cylindrical liquid sheets under 3-D disturbance. The model incorporates swirling velocity component, finite film thickness and radius which are essential features of conical liquid sheets emanating from simplex atomizers. It is observed that the relative velocity between liquid and gas phase, density ratio and surface curvature enhance the interfacial aerodynamic instability. As Weber number and density ratio increase, both the wave growth rate and the unstable wave number range increase. Combination of axial and swirling velocity components is more effective than single axial component for disintegration of liquid sheet. A breakup model for conical liquid sheet is proposed. Combining the breakup model with linear stability analysis, mean drop sizes are predicted. The theoretical results are compared with measurement data and agreement is very good.

This content is only available via PDF.