The physics of the film cooling process for shaped, streamwise-injected, inclined jets is studied for blowing ratio (M = 1.25, 1.88), density ratio (DR = 1.6), and length-to-diameter ratio (L/D = 4) parameters typical of gas turbine operations. A previously documented computational methodology is applied for the study of five distinct film cooling configurations: (1) cylindrical film hole (reference case); (2) forward-diffused film hole; (3) laterally-diffused film hole; (4) inlet shaped film hole, and (5) cusp-shaped film hole. The effects of various film hole geometries on both flow and thermal field characteristics is isolated, and the dominant mechanisms responsible for differences in these characteristics are documented. Special consideration is given to explaining crucial flow mechanisms from a vorticity point of view. It is found that vorticity analysis of the flow exiting the film hole can aid substantially in explaining the flow behavior downstream of the film hole. Results indicate that changes in the film hole shape can significantly alter the distribution of the exit-plane variables, therefore strongly affecting the downstream behavior of the film.
Computational solutions of the steady, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are obtained using an unstructured/adaptive, fully implicit, pressure-correction solver. Turbulence closure is obtained via the high Reynolds number k-ε model with generalized wall functions. Detailed field results as well as surface phenomena involving adiabatic film effectiveness (η) and heat transfer coefficient (h) are presented. When possible, computational results are validated against corresponding experimental cases from data found in the open literature. Detailed comparisons are made between surface and field results of the film hole shapes investigated in this work; design criteria for optimizing downstream heat transfer characteristics are then suggested.