Turbine blades generally present surface roughness introduced in the manufacturing process or caused by in-service degradation, which can have a significant impact on aero-thermal performance. A better understanding of the fundamental physical mechanisms arising from the interaction between the roughness and the turbine flow at engine-relevant conditions can provide insights for the design of blades with improved efficiency and longer operational life. To this end, a high-fidelity numerical framework combining a well-validated solver for Direct Numerical Simulation and a second-order accurate immersed boundary method is employed to predict roughness-induced aero-thermal effects on an LS89 high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade at engine-relevant conditions. Different amplitudes and distributions of surface roughness are investigated and a reference smooth-blade simulation under the same flow conditions is conducted for comparison. Roughness of increasing amplitude progressively shifts the blade suction side boundary layer transition upstream, producing larger values of the turbulent kinetic energy and higher total wake losses. The on-surface data-capturing capabilities of the numerical framework provide direct measurements of the heat flux and the skin friction coefficient, hence offering quantitative information between the surface topology and engineering-relevant performance parameters. This work may provide a benchmark for future numerical studies of turbomachinery flows with roughness.

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