Axial turbines are being extensively designed for supercritical carbon-di-oxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle power blocks. But very little information is available in the open literature on the aerodynamics of S-CO2 axial turbines, their aerofoils and loss mechanisms. The understanding of real gas behavior of S-CO2 inside a turbine is still very far from complete. Profile losses contribute to more than 50% of overall losses in a turbine. Hence, estimation of profile losses at the outset of the design process is very important. In the present study, the mean section aerofoil of the first stage of a 5 MWe Brayton cycle high temperature turbine is investigated for profile loss characteristics. The basic aerodynamic characteristics of the aerofoil in a linear cascade were initially studied using CFD simulations and cascade test experiments with air as the fluid medium. The aerofoil cascade is then subjected to numerical simulations with S-CO2 as the fluid medium. CFD simulations were carried out using a commercial RANS solver with SST k-ω turbulence model for closure. Air was modelled as ideal gas and S-CO2 was modelled as real gas with Refrigerant Gas Property tables generated over the appropriate pressure and temperature ranges using NIST Refprop database. Losses are also calculated using Craig and Cox loss model. Experiments were carried out by testing a linear cascade model comprising 12 two dimensional blades, in a high-speed cascade wind tunnel. Cascade tests were carried out over a range of exit Mach numbers and incidence angles with air as the working medium. Losses, flow deflection and blade loading were measured during the experiments. Scaling of the profile losses between air and S-CO2 fluid mediums were examined over a range of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and incidence angles. Detailed analysis of data generated from numerical simulations, experiments and loss model (mainly in the transonic regime) are discussed in this paper. Losses with S-CO2 was 1.5% lower than that of air while the flow deflection roughly remained the same.

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