Turbochargers are widely used to help reduce the environmental impact of automotive engines. However, a limiting factor for turbochargers is compressor surge. Surge is an instability that induces pressure and flow oscillations that often damages the turbocharger and its installation.
Most predictions of the surge limit are based on low-order models, such as the Moore-Greitzer model. These models tend to rely on a characteristic curve for the compressor created by extrapolating the constant speed lines of a steady-state compressor map into the negative mass flow region. However, there is little validation of these assumptions in the public literature.
In this paper, we develop further the first-principles model for a compressor characteristic presented in Powers et al. , with a particular emphasis on reverse flow. We then perform experiments using a 58mm diameter centrifugal compressor provided by Cummins Turbo Technologies, where we feed air in the reverse direction though the compressor while the impeller is spinning in the forwards direction in order to obtain data in the negative mass flow region of the compressor map.
This demonstrated experimentally that there is a stable operating region in the reverse flow regime. The recorded data showed a good match with the theoretical model developed in this paper We also identified a change in characteristic behaviour as the impeller speed is increased which, to the authors knowledge, has not been observed in any previously published experimental work.