Abstract

The flow in turbomachinery components is complex due to the relative motion of rotating and non-rotating elements. A proper design and prediction of physical phenomena requires reliable CFD tools. One important aspect is the incorporation of sophisticated algorithms at the boundaries of the computational domain.

For inviscid, one-dimensional and two-dimensional Euler-flows there exist analytical solutions for the formulation of a boundary condition. Realistic applications, however, are viscous and consist of a complex three-dimensional character. Nevertheless, the analytical 2D nonreflecting boundary conditions are commonly used in CFD codes for their high computational efficiency and numerical robustness.

The application becomes more challenging when the boundaries are close to geometrical features such as blades and vanes. In practical applications, the position of the boundaries is dictated by geometrical constraints and hence the proximity to the blading cannot always be avoided. The interaction of rotating and non-rotating geometrical features in a turbomachine produces complex flow patterns that propagate in the form of acoustic, vorticity and entropy waves. A boundary condition must be implemented in such a way that waves can propagate undisturbed out of the computational domain. Any reflection may unphysically affect the solution within the computational domain which is especially harmful to sensitive values such as unsteady aeroelastic quantities. But also steady-state computations may suffer from errors produced by reflective boundary conditions.

The following paper is the second of two papers on the formulation of unsteady boundary conditions based on a two-dimensional analytical approach. The first part of this paper [6] explains how to extend 2D nonreflecting boundary conditions to real 3D annular domains by applying them in certain conical rotational surfaces. Two different formulations are discussed referring to the orientation of said rotational surfaces. In the first case the surfaces are oriented perpendicular to the boundary panel. In the second case the surfaces are aligned with the circumferentially averaged meridional flow velocity.

In the present paper a thorough analysis of the two different approaches will be given. Both formulations of the boundary algorithm are validated on the basis of several elementary model flows. The behavior is analyzed for various unsteady wave patterns of different propagation directions with respect to the boundary. It will be shown that the alignment of the rotational surfaces with the meridional flow has a beneficial effect on the reflective behavior for the majority of the investigated flow conditions.

The boundary conditions are then tested on realistic turbomachinery components in order to analyze their applicability on complex flows.

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