Compared to turbodiesel technology for ground vehicles, the increasing application of turbochargers in aircraft diesel engines presents a unique set of structural dynamics and aeroelasticity considerations due to their more extreme operating conditions. In particular, blade vibration and flutter are two related but distinct phenomena that impact the design of these turbochargers and reliable operation over their lifetime. Deformation or fatigue due to blade excitation can reduce efficiency or cause components to fail prematurely. The existing literature on turbomachinery covers many research efforts to analyze these phenomena by investigating the physical mechanisms responsible as well as the relationships between the fluid and solid dynamics. This review paper emphasizes those efforts most relevant to airborne diesel turbochargers, including research focusing on altitude effects on centrifugal compressors. Early work in which the dominant parameters for modeling turbocharger behavior were identified is highlighted as are current efforts to develop higher-fidelity models. An overview of existing and proposed techniques for measuring and controlling blade resonance is also given. Finally, an experimental facility for testing of turbochargers is proposed. The facility will include a nonintrusive stress measurement system and enable measurement of blade deflection/vibration together with blade stress, temperature, pressure, and flow rate across a range of simulated altitudes. The goal will be to characterize the blade bending modes, resonances, and critical speeds for various simulated altitude, pressure, temperature, and flow rate conditions so that designs may be devised that could prevent or avoid the associated failure modes in airborne diesel applications.