Modern turbomachine designs feature reduced nominal clearances between rotating bladed-disks and their surrounding casings in order to improve the engine efficiency. Unavoidably, clearance reduction increases the risk of contacts between static and rotating components which may yield hazardous interaction phenomena. In this context, the deposition of an abradable coating along the casing inner surface is a common way to enhance operational safety while mitigating interaction phenomena thus allowing for tighter clearances. Nonetheless, interactions leading to unexpected wear removal phenomena between a bladed-disk and a casing with abradable coating have been observed experimentally. Beside of blade damages such as cracks resulting from high amplitudes of vibration, experimental observations included very significant temperatures increase, particularly within the abradable coating, to a point that thermo-mechanical effects may not be neglected anymore. The aim of this work is to investigate the numerical modeling of thermal effects in the abradable coating and the casing due to contact interactions. In particular, the proposed model provides insight on the sensitivity of engines to contact events when the plane had reduced tarmac times between two consecutive flights.
A strongly coupled thermo-mechanical model of the casing and its abradable coating is first described. A 3D cylindrical mesh is employed, it may be decomposed in two parts: (1) along the casing contact surface, a cylindrical thermal mesh is constructed to compute the temperature elevation and heat diffusion in the three directions of space within the abradable coating, and (2) the casing itself is represented by a simplified cylindrical thermo-mechanical mesh to compute both temperature elevation and the induced deformations following temperature changes. This 3D hybrid mesh is combined with a mechanical mesh of the abradable layer, dedicated to wear modeling and the computation of normal and tangential contact forces following blade/abradable coating impacts. The heat flux resulting from contact events is related to the friction forces and only heat transfer by conduction is considered in this work. In order to reduce computational times, the time integration procedure is twofold: the explicit time integration scheme featuring reduced time steps required for contact treatment is combined with a larger time step time integration scheme used for the casing thermo-mechanical model. An extensive validation procedure is carried out from a numerical standpoint, it underlines the convergence of the model with respect to time and space parameters.