Nowadays, gas turbine engines play an indispensable role in modern industry, which have been widely used especially in the aviation, marine and energy fields. The turbine inlet temperature is one of the most important factors that influences the performance of the turbine engine. It’s acknowledged that the higher turbine inlet temperature contributes to the overall gas turbine engine efficiency. Therefore, the internal cooling technology of turbine blades is of vital importance. This paper mainly studies the effects of dimples and protrusions on flow and heat transfer in matrix cooling channels and optimize the performance of the matrix cooling structure by numerical simulation and experiment methods. Thirteen cases have been calculated under Re = 10,000∼80,000 by the commercial code ANSYS Fluent. Structures with different layouts of dimples and protrusions were considered, such as the number, distance and the depth ratio. The original model has been strengthened due to the dimple and protrusion structure, which improves heat transfer performance as well as the thermal performance factor (TPF) on condition that the pressure loss increases slightly. Meanwhile, the optimized structures have been made and tested by the transient liquid crystal technique (TLC). A comparison between the CFD results and the experimental data is made. Note that the heat transfer performance is much better when the ratio of the dimple depth and the dimple diameter is equal to 0.3, compared with the ratio of 0.1 and 0.2. In terms of the cases with two sides dimples, the heat transfer can be enhanced by increasing the number of the dimples. In addition, the heat transfer performance is the best when both of dimples and protrusions are applied. Nu/Nu0 and TPF increase by up to approximately 7% and 5% respectively.