The aerodynamic performance of turbine components constituting the gas turbine engine is seriously required to be improved in order to reduce environmental load. The energy recovery efficiency in turbine component can be enhanced by the increase of turbine blade loading. In this study, as the first stage to investigate the aerodynamic performance of an ultra-highly loaded turbine cascade (UHLTC) with a turning angle of 160 degrees at transonic flow regime, two-dimensional steady compressible flows in UHLTC were analyzed numerically by using a commercial CFD code to focus on the profile loss. In the computations, the isentropic exit Mach number was varied in the wide range from 0.3 to 1.8 in order to examine the effects of exit Mach number on the shock wave formation and the associated profile loss generation. The computed results were examined in detail by comparing with those for a typical transonic turbine cascade. The detailed examination for the present computed results clarified the variation of shock pattern with the increase of exit Mach number and the loss “plateau” behavior in the present UHLTC.