The complex leakage flow structure in the tip region of unshrouded rotor is a main source of turbine aerodynamic loss. Due to the complex turbulence characteristics of the tip leakage flow, the widely used Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach may fail to accurately predict the multi-scale turbulent flow and the related loss. In order to effectively improve the turbine efficiency, more insights into the turbulence characteristics and the loss mechanism in the tip leakage flow are required. In this work, a Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) study is conducted to simulate the flow inside a high pressure turbine blade, with emphasis on the tip region. DDES results are in good agreement with the experiment and the comparison with RANS results verifies the advantages of DDES in resolving finer flow structures of leakage flow, also in capturing the complex turbulence characteristics. The snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method is used to extract the dominant flow features. The flow structures and the distribution of Reynolds stress help to reveal the process of leakage flow and its interaction with the secondary flow. Meanwhile, it is found that the separation vortex (SV) forms from leading edge to trailing edge, and the strong interactions between tip leakage vortex (TLV) and passage secondary vortex (PSV) significantly enhance the turbulence intensity. Based on the DDES results, loss analysis of tip leakage flow is conducted based on entropy generation rates. For the leakage flow related loss, the largest local entropy generation rate occurs at 50 % of axial chord, and the interaction between the leakage vortex and up passage vortex promotes the loss generation. To sum up, the current DDES study about the tip leakage flow provides helpful information about the loss generation mechanism and may guide the design of low-loss blade tip.

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