As a means of meeting ever increasing emissions and fuel economy demands car manufacturers are using aggressive engine downsizing. To maintain the power output of the engine turbocharging is typically used. Compared to Mono scroll turbines, with a multi-entry system the individual volute sizing can be better matched to the single mass flow pulse from the engine cylinders. The exhaust pulse energy can be better utilised by the turbocharger turbine improving turbocharger response. Additionally the interaction of the engine exhaust pulses can be better avoided, improving the scavenging of the engine.
Besides the thermodynamic advantages, the multi-entry turbine represents a challenge to the structural dynamic design of the turbine. A higher number of turbine wheel resonance points can be expected during operation. In addition, the increased use of exhaust pulse energy leads to a distinct accentuation of the blade vibration excitation.
Using validated engine models, the interaction of the multi-entry turbine with the engine has been analyzed and various operating points, which may be critical for the blade vibration excitation, have been classified.
These operating points deliver the input variables for unsteady computational flow dynamics (CFD) analyses. From these calculations unsteady blade forces were derived providing the necessary boundary conditions for the structural dynamic analyses by spatially and temporally high-resolved absolute pressures on the turbine surface.
Goal of the investigation is to identify critical operating conditions. Important is also to investigate the effect of a scroll connection valve on blade excitation. The investigations utilize validated tools that were introduced and successfully applied to several turbine types in a series of publications over recent years.
It can be stated that the engine operating condition and the admission type significantly influence the forced response reaction of the blade to the different excitation orders (EO).
In case of equal admission even (or multiples of two) EOs generate the largest dynamic blade stress as can be expected due to the two turbine inlet segments. This reaction also increases with the engine speed. In the case of unequal admission, the odd EOs produce the largest forced response reaction. The maximum dynamic blade stress occurs in the region where the scroll connection is just closed. Above all, the scroll connection valve influences the Beta value and thus the basic behavior — unequal or equal admission.
It has been possible to reconstruct the forced response behavior of the turbine blade within an engine combustion cycle. For the first time it could be shown for a double scroll application that there is a significant dynamic blade stress change dependent on the engine crankshaft angle. Certainly, due to the inertia of the mass and damping (mass, structure, flow), the blade will not exactly follow the predicted course. However, it is clear that the transient processes within an engine combustion cycle will affect the dynamic blade stress. This applies to the turbine wheels investigated in the work at hand with low damping, high eigenfrequencies and the considered internal combustion engines — as they are typically used in the passenger car sector.