In turbomachines, forced response of blades is blade vibrations due to external aerodynamic excitations and it can lead to blade failures which can have fatal or severe economic consequences. The estimation of the level of vibration due to forced response is dependent on the determination of aerodynamic damping. The most critical cases for forced response occur at high reduced frequencies. This paper investigates the determination of aerodynamic damping at high reduced frequencies. The aerodynamic damping was calculated by a linearized Navier-Stokes flow solver with exact 3D non-reflecting boundary conditions.
The method was validated using Standard Configuration 8, a two-dimensional flat plate. Good agreement with the reference data at reduced frequency 2.0 was achieved and grid converged solutions with reduced frequency up to 16.0 were obtained. It was concluded that at least 20 cells per wavelength is required. A 3D profile was also investigated: an aeroelastic turbine rig (AETR) which is a subsonic turbine case. In the AETR case, the first bending mode with reduced frequency 2.0 was studied. The 3D acoustic modes were calculated at the far-fields and the propagating amplitude was plotted as a function of circumferential mode index and radial order. This plot identified six acoustic resonance points which included two points corresponding to the first radial modes. The aerodynamic damping as a function of nodal diameter was also calculated and plotted. There were six distinct peaks which occurred in the damping curve and these peaks correspond to the six resonance points. This demonstrates for the first time that acoustic resonances due to higher order radial acoustic modes can affect the aerodynamic damping at high reduced frequencies.