The aeroelastic prediction of blade forcing is still a very important topic in turbomachinery design. Usually, the wake from an upstream airfoil and the potential field from a downstream airfoil are considered as the main disturbances. In recent years, it became evident that in addition to those two mechanisms Tyler-Sofrin modes, also called scattered or spinning modes, may have a significant impact on blade forcing.
In Schrape et al.  it was found that in multi-row configurations not only the next, but also the next but one blade row is very important as it may create a large circumferential forcing variation which is fixed in the rotating frame of reference.
In the present paper a study of these effects is performed on the basis of a quasi 3D multi-row and multi-passage compressor configuration. For the analysis a harmonic balancing code, which was developed by DLR Cologne, is used for various setups and the results are compared to full-annulus unsteady calculations. It is shown that the effect of the circumferentially different blade excitation is mainly contributed by the Tyler-Sofrin modes and not to blade-to-blade variation in the steady flow field.
The influence of various clocking positions, coupling schemes and number of harmonics onto the forcing is investigated. It is also shown that along a speed-line in the compressor map the blade-to-blade forcing variation may change significantly.
In addition, multi-row flutter calculations are performed, showing the influence of the upstream and downstream blade row onto aerodynamic damping.
The effect of these forcing variations onto random mistuning effects is investigated in the second part of the paper.