By modeling a multi-component gas, a new source of indirect combustion noise is identified, which is named compositional indirect noise. The advection of mixture inhomogeneities exiting the gas-turbine combustion chamber through subsonic and supersonic nozzles is shown to be an acoustic dipole source of sound. The level of mixture inhomogeneity is described by a difference in composition with the mixture fraction. An n-dodecane mixture, which is a kerosene fuel relevant to aeronautics, is used to evaluate the level of compositional noise. By relaxing the compact-nozzle assumption, the indirect noise is numerically calculated for Helmholtz numbers up to 2 in nozzles with linear velocity profile. The compact-nozzle limit is discussed. Only in this limit, it is possible to derive analytical transfer functions for (i) the noise emitted by the nozzle and (ii) the acoustics travelling back to the combustion chamber generated by accelerated compositional inhomogeneities. The former contributes to noise pollution, whereas the latter has the potential to induce thermoacoustic oscillations. It is shown that the compositional indirect noise can be at least as large as the direct noise and entropy noise in chocked nozzles and lean mixtures. As the frequency with which the compositional inhomogeneities enter the nozzle increases, or as the nozzle spatial length increases, the level of compositional noise decreases, with a similar, but not equal, trend to the entropy noise. The noisiest configuration is found to be a compact supersonic nozzle.
Effects of Nozzle Helmholtz Number on Indirect Combustion Noise by Compositional Perturbations
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Magri, L, O’Brien, J, & Ihme, M. "Effects of Nozzle Helmholtz Number on Indirect Combustion Noise by Compositional Perturbations." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2017: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition. Volume 2C: Turbomachinery. Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. June 26–30, 2017. V02CT43A003. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2017-63382
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