In the design and testing of gas compressors, the correct determination of the thermodynamic properties of the gas, such as enthalpy, entropy, and specific volume from pressure, temperature, and composition, plays an important role. Due to the wide range of conditions encountered, pressure, specific volume and temperature (p-v-T) equations of state (EOS) are used to determine the isentropic or polytropic efficiency, the work input, and capacity of a compressor configuration. However, accurate equations of state may be lacking for some more complicated gas mixtures. Experimentally determined thermodynamic state information is more accurate and is needed to validate, correct, or supplant existing equations of state.

The methodology for calculating enthalpy and entropy from experimental data is presented including the full step-by-step derivation from first principles. The thermodynamic relations or calculus properties used in each step of the derivation are clearly identified to provide traceability and encourage verification. Results are presented in three forms to match all possible tabulation formats of temperature, pressure, and volume data. Calculation methods for other useful but unmeasured thermodynamic properties such as the specific heat at constant pressure and the ratio of specific heats are also given. The methodology is demonstrated in two examples. The first is a verification case where REFPROP, an equation of state software, is used to generate input data, and the enthalpy and entropy values calculated from the input data are shown to match those given directly by REFPROP. The second is a practical demonstration where the methodology is used with actual experimental data.

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