This study investigates the influence of the fuel injection strategy on safety against flashback in a gas turbine model combustor with premixing of H2-air-mixtures. The flashback propensity is quantified and the flashback mechanism is identified experimentally.
The A2EV swirler concept exhibits a hollow, thick walled conical structure with four tangential slots. Four fuel injector geometries were tested. One of them injects the fuel orthogonal to the air flow in the slots (jet-in-crossflow-injector, JICI). Three injector types introduce the fuel almost isokinetic to the air flow at the trailing edge of the swirler slots (trailing edge injector, TEI). Velocity and mixing fields in mixing zone and combustion chamber in isothermal water flow were measured with High-speed-Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) and Highspeed-Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF). The flashback limit was determined under atmospheric pressure for three air mass flows and 673 K preheat temperature for H2-air-mixtures. Flashback mechanism and trajectory of the flame tip during flashback were identified with two stereoscopically oriented intensified high-speed cameras observing the OH* radiation.
We notice flashback in the core flow due to Combustion Induced Vortex Breakdown (CIVB) and Turbulent upstream Flame Propagation (TFP) near the wall dependent on the injector type. The Flashback Resistance (FBR) defined as the ratio between a characteristic flow speed and a characteristic flame speed measures the direction of propagation of a turbulent flame in the flow field. Although CIVB cannot be predicted solely based on the FBR, its distribution gives evidence for CIVB-prone states.
The fuel should be injected preferably isokinetic to the air flow along the entire trailing edge in oder to reduce the RMS fluctuation of velocity and fuel concentration. The characteristic velocity in the entire cross section of the combustion chamber inlet should be at least twice the characteristic flame speed. The position of the stagnation point should be tuned to be located in the combustion chamber by adjusting the axial momentum. Those measures lead to safe operation with highly reactive fuels at high equivalence ratios.