This contribution presents the development and design of a two-stage contraction zone and modular test section for a closed loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) wind tunnel. The first contraction consists of four truncated cones, whose length and angle of inclination are derived from a two-stage optimization procedure, with the objective to minimize flow deviation and to avoid boundary-layer separation. The geometrical optimization yields a profile with minor deviation to the ideal polynomial shape, whereas the flow optimized shape minimizes flow separation at the break-points between the single conical pieces.
The second contraction has to perform two major tasks, namely the acceleration of the flow up to a Mach number of Ma = 0.8 for organic fluids and the transformation of the circular inlet to a rectangular outlet cross-sectional shape, required by the working section. The circular-to-rectangular transition is accomplished by variation of the generalized ellipse, also known as Lamé curve. Smooth polynomials are then used to define the reduction of cross-sectional area. A comprehensive number of contraction geometries with fixed contraction ratio, variable length, and different points of inflection are analyzed with regards to minimum flow deviation, the avoidance of flow separation, as well as a uniform velocity field at the contraction outlet. A semi-analytical approach based on a potential flow solution in combination with the Stratford criterion is the basis for evaluating boundary-layer separation.
The design of a two-part modular diffuser, based on the concept of a dumped diffuser, as commonly encountered in gas turbine design, is presented. The numerical results are compared with analytical findings and special characteristics of the different designs are explained. Finally, the overall design concept of the test section is presented.