The Joule-/Brayton thermodynamic cycle is the base cycle of all major contemporary aero engines. Over the decades, the achievement of further significant improvements has become progressively challenging, and the increase of efficiency approaches physical limitations. In order to meet the ambitious long-term emission reduction targets, the introduction of radical new propulsion system concepts is indispensable. Various cycles promising significant efficiency improvements over the conventional Joule-/Brayton-cycle are being examined by the engine community. However, as no clear favorite has emerged from these potential technical solutions, a transparent methodological approach for the consistent evaluation of the concepts is necessary.
Consistent thermodynamic description and performance metrics for three engine cycles are presented in this paper: The turbofan as reference and two radical engine cycles, namely the composite cycle and the cycle-integrated parallel hybrid. Laws for the estimation of component performance for large parametric variations are introduced. A method for the estimation of power plant system mass for the investigated engine cycles is proposed to evaluate fuel burn reduction. The studies substantiated that the turbofan improvement potential is saturating. The composite cycle engine offers a tremendous potential for fuel burn improvement of 24.5% over state of the art turbofan engines, which allows meeting the emission reduction targets in 2035. The cycle-integrated parallel hybrid engine improves the turbofan moderately with year 2035 technology, but is not capable of meeting the corresponding emission reduction targets on a short-to-medium range aircraft platform.