The thermal efficiency of gas turbine engines increases with turbine inlet temperature (TIT) directly. However, the TIT is limited by the allowable temperature of current blade materials. Film cooling technique is an effective method to maintain turbine vane working smoothly under high TIT conditions. The adiabatic film effectiveness has been widely employed to understand film cooling mechanism. Therefore, the prediction of the adiabatic effectiveness of gas turbine engines under real operating conditions is essential. The showerhead film cooled turbine vane reported by L. P. Timko (NASA CR-168289) is adopted in the present study. There are two rows of film holes on the leading edge, three rows on the pressure side, and two rows on the suction side. All holes are cylindrical, which are placed at an angle of 45 degrees to the vane surface in the span-wise direction. This numerical investigation discusses the influences of free stream turbulence intensity on the adiabatic film effectiveness in the vane leading edge region and its vicinity. Five two-equation turbulence models based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) are employed to predict the adiabatic film effectiveness under real operating conditions at a blowing ratio (BR) of 1.41 and three free stream turbulence intensities (Tu=3.3, 10, and 20%). The adiabatic film effectiveness on the vane surface at 8, 52.5, and 89% span in an x/C range between −0.4 and 0.4 is presented. Obviously, the numerical results predicted by all five models show that on the suction side, the increasing free stream turbulence intensity can reduce film effectiveness except at 8% span. On the pressure side, the RNG k-ε, Realizable k-ε and SST k-ω models predict the same trend of the adiabatic film effectiveness, especially the RNG k-ε and SST k-ω models. Those three models predict that the locally adiabatic film effectiveness (especially near film holes) can be improved when turbulence intensity increases. However, at a span of 89% within the x/C range between −0.4 and −0.2, all k-ε models and SST k-ω model predict that the increase of turbulence intensity can reduce the adiabatic film effectiveness. In addition, the film effectiveness contours show a significant variation of film effectiveness predicted by the five turbulence models on the leading edge when turbulence intensity increases. For the near-pressure side, all models except the Standard k-ω model predict that the high turbulence intensity can reduce the film spreading from film holes dramatically.
Predicting Adiabatic Film Effectiveness of a Turbine Vane by Two-Equation Turbulence Models
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Prapamonthon, P, Xu, H, Wang, J, & Li, G. "Predicting Adiabatic Film Effectiveness of a Turbine Vane by Two-Equation Turbulence Models." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition. Volume 5B: Heat Transfer. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. June 15–19, 2015. V05BT12A019. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2015-42565
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