The possibility to realize adaptive structures is of great interest in turbomachinery design, owing to the benefits related to enhanced performance and efficiency. To accomplish this, a challenging approach is the employment of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), which can recover seemingly permanent strains by solid phase transformations whereby the so-called Shape Memory Effect (SME) takes place.
This paper presents the development of a heavy-duty automotive cooling axial fan with morphing blades activated by SMA strips that works as actuator elements in the polymeric blade structure. Concerning the fan performance, this new concept differs from a conventional viscous fan clutch solution especially during the non-stationary operating condition. The blade design was performed in order to achieve the thermal activation of the strips by means of air stream flow. Two polymeric matrices were chosen to be tested in conjunction with a commercially available NiTi binary alloy, whose phase transformation temperatures were experimentally evaluated by imposing the actual operating thermal gradient.
The SMA strips were then thermo-mechanically treated to memorize a bent shape and embedded in the polymeric blade. In a specifically designed wind tunnel, the different polymeric matrices equipped with the SMA strips were tested to assess the fluid temperature and surface pattern behavior of the blade. Upon heating they tend to recover the memorized shape and the blade is forced to bend, leading to a camber variation and a trailing edge displacement. The recovery behavior of each composite structure (polymeric matrix with SMA strips) was evaluated through digital image analysis techniques. The differences between the blade shape at the initial condition and at the maximum bending deformation were considered.
According to these results, the best coupling of SMA strips and polymeric structure is assessed and its time-wise behavior is compared to the traditional time-wise behavior of a viscous fan clutch.