Shaped film holes can achieve higher film cooling effectiveness compared with the simple cylindrical film holes. According to former studies, the geometry of the shaped film holes has significant influence on the cooling performance. In order to maximize the film cooling effectiveness of the shaped holes, a two-level design optimization methodology of the hole exit shaping is developed in the present study.
The optimization methodology consists of a parametric design and CFD mesh generation tool called Coolmesh, a RANS CFD solver, a database of film cooling effectiveness distributions, a metamodel, and a genetic algorithm (GA) for evolutionary optimization. A binary parametric representation of the 2D hole exit shaping is initiated based on the B-spline methods. The metamodel can efficiently predict the detailed distribution of film cooling effectiveness using the CFD results in the database, which is continuously updated for higher accuracy. In each first-level iteration, a second-level GA optimization search is carried out coupled with the metamodel, and then the optimal geometry is evaluated using CFD methods and added to the database. An anisotropic turbulence model is applied to the CFD solver for higher accuracy according to a detailed experimental validation using PSP measurements.
In the present study, three design optimizations of the shaped holes without and with compound angles are carried out on a flat plate. The optimization methodology can efficiently find the optimal geometries of shaped holes using only hundreds of CFD runs. For the shaped holes with compound angle, the optimized geometry can generate a back flow vortex which interacts with the shear vortex and weakens the mixing of coolant and hot gas, resulting in a higher film cooling effectiveness on the plate.