The double entry turbine contains two different gas entries, each feeding 180° of a single rotor wheel. This geometry can be beneficial for use in turbocharging and is uniquely found in this application. The nature of the turbocharging process means that the double entry turbine will be fed by a highly pulsating flow from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine, most often with out of phase pulsations in each of the two entries.
Until now research on the double entry turbine under pulsating flow conditions has been limited to experimental work. Although this is of great value in showing how pulsating flow will affect the performance of the double entry turbine, the level of detail with which this can be studied is limited. This paper is the first to use a 3 dimensional computational analysis to study the flow structures within a double entry turbine under conditions of pulsating flow. The analysis looks at one condition of pulsating flow with out of phase pulsations. The computational results are validated against experimental data taken from the turbocharger test facility at Imperial College and a good agreement is found.
The analysis first looks at the degree of mass flow storage within different components of the turbine and discusses the effect on the performance of the turbine. Each of the volute limbs is found to be subject to a large degree of mass storage throughout a pulse cycle demonstrating a definite impact of the unsteady flow. The rotor wheel shows a much smaller degree of mass flow storage overall due to the pulsating flow, however each rotor passage is subject to a much larger degree of mass flow storage due to the instantaneous flow inequality between the two volute inlets. This is a direct consequence of the double entry geometry.
The following part of the analysis studies the loss profile within the turbine under pulsating flow using the concept of entropy generation rate. A significant change in the loss profile of the turbine is found throughout the period of a pulse cycle showing a highly changing flow regime. The major areas of loss are found to be due to tip leakage flow and mixing within the blade passage.