Detailed experimental investigations have been conducted to gain profound knowledge of airfoil clocking mechanisms in axial compressors. Clocking, the circumferential indexing of adjacent rotor or stator rows with equal blade counts, is known as a potential means to modify the flow field in multistage turbo-machinery and increase overall efficiencies of both turbines and compressors. These beneficial effects on turbomachine performance are due to wake-airfoil interactions and primarily depend on the alignment of a downstream blade or vane row with upstream wake trajectories that are generated in the same frame of reference. The present survey describes and discusses the experimental research on Rotor and Stator Clocking effects in a low-speed 2.5-stage axial flow compressor. For both Rotor and Stator Clocking, variations of Stage 2 performance have been found that are sinusoidal in trend over the clocking angle and originate from a significant change in static pressure rise across the clocked blade rows. Time-averaged measurements basically suggest the highest pressure gain, if the upstream wakes pass through mid-passage of the downstream blade row. In case of Rotor Clocking, this may even lead to a variation in compressor operating range. The fundamental aerodynamic mechanism responsible for the clocking effect can be attributed to a shift of the suction-sided boundary layer transition over the clocking angle. Regarding overall Stage 2 performance, the investigations show that Full Clocking, i.e. the combination of Rotor and Stator Clocking, nearly doubles the potential of single row indexing.

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