The starting point for this investigation was the observation of robust streamwise streaks in flow visualization on the suction surfaces of blades in a turbine cascade at subsonic and transonic speeds. The spanwise wavelength of an array of streamwise vortices had been predicted by Kestin and Wood and is here confirmed experimentally. Observations of streaks on unswept turbine blades and on circular cylinders confirmed these earlier predictions, providing a firm basis for referencing the new measurements of vortical behavior. The observations made it clear that the boundary layers are highly three dimensional. In this paper observations of streamwise and transverse instabilities on swept circular cylinders, over a range of inclinations, are presented. The circular cylinder is a canonical case and observations relate the streamwise vorticity of the unswept case to the more aggressive crossflow instability, at high sweep angles, studied by Poll. Introducing sweep brings consideration of a wide range of instabilities. Prominent is crossflow instability resulting from the inflectional behavior of a three-dimensional boundary layer.

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