Crackle noise from heated supersonic jets is characterized by the presence of strong positive pressure impulses resulting in a strongly skewed far-field pressure signal. These strong positive pressure impulses are associated with “N-shaped” waveforms involving a shock-like compression, and thus is very annoying to observers when it occurs. Unlike broadband shock-associated noise which dominates at upstream angles, crackle reaches a maximum at downstream angles associated with the peak jet noise directivity. Recent experiments  have shown that the addition of chevrons to the nozzle lip can significantly reduce crackle, especially in full-scale high-power tests. Because of these observations, it was conjectured that crackle is associated with coherent large scale flow structures produced by the baseline nozzle, and that the formation of these structures are interrupted by the presence of the chevrons, which leads to noise reduction. In particular, shocklets attached to large eddies are postulated as a possible aerodynamic mechanism for the formation of crackle. In this paper, we test this hypothesis through high-fidelity Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of a hot supersonic jet of Mach number 1.56 and total temperature temperature ratio of 3.65. We use the LES solver “CharLES,” developed by Cascade Technologies, Inc., to capture the turbulent jet plume on fully-unstructured meshes.
- International Gas Turbine Institute
Crackle Noise in Heated Supersonic Jets
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Nichols, JW, Lele, SK, Ham, FE, Martens, S, & Spyropoulos, JT. "Crackle Noise in Heated Supersonic Jets." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2012: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition. Volume 1: Aircraft Engine; Ceramics; Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels; Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation. Copenhagen, Denmark. June 11–15, 2012. pp. 337-345. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2012-69624
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