This paper discusses the development and testing of a full-scale micro-mixing lean-premix injector for hydrogen and syngas fuels that demonstrated ultra-low emissions and stable operation without flashback for high-hydrogen fuels at representative full-scale operating conditions. The injector was fabricated using Macrolamination technology, which is a process by which injectors are manufactured from bonded layers. The injector utilizes sixteen micro-mixing cups for effective and rapid mixing of fuel and air in a compact package. The full scale injector is rated at 1.3 MWth when operating on natural gas at 12.4 bar (180 psi) combustor pressure. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to operating pressure. Ultra-low NOx emissions of 3 ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750 K (2690 °F) using a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution added to the fuel stream. NOx emissions of 1.5 ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1680 K (2564 °F) using the same fuel mixture with only 10% nitrogen dilution, and NOx emissions of 3.5 ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730 K (2650 °F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, using 100% hydrogen with 30% carbon dioxide dilution, 3.6 ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600 K (2420 °F). Superior operability was achieved with the injector operating at temperatures below 1470 K (2186 °F) on a fuel mixture containing 87% hydrogen and 13% natural gas. The tests validated the micro-mixing fuel injector technology and the injectors show great promise for use in future gas turbine engines operating on hydrogen, syngas or other fuel mixtures of various compositions.

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