Naturally occurring limestone and samples from a lab scale dual fluidized bed (DFB) calcium looping (CaL) test facility were analysed in a thermo gravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivity of the samples evaluated at typical carbonation conditions prevailed in the carbonator was compared with raw samples. Carbonations were carried out at 600, 650 &700°C and 5, 10 &15 vol-% CO2 atmosphere using a custom designed sample holder that provided ideal conditions for solid gas contact in a TGA. The rate of carbonation and carbonation capacity of the samples were compared with respect to the following three categories: number of calcination-carbonation cycles, carbonation temperature and CO2 concentration. Notable differences in total conversion (XCaO) and the rates of conversions were observed between the raw and DFB samples in all three cases. It is suspected the much lower activity of the DFB sample is attributed to the differences in experimental conditions: ie., partial carbonation of the DFB particles, fast heating rate in the calciner and thus a rapid calcination reaction, and particle attrition in the CFB calciner riser. These harsh conditions lead sintering and thus a loss of surface area and reactivity. Sintered DFB samples showed low (nearly 1/3 of the raw samples) but stable conversions with increasing number of cycles. The sorbent taken from the DFB facility did not decrease with respect to carbonation rate or maximum conversion over 4 cycles whereas the fresh limestone changed significantly over 4 cycles. Hydration was used as an attempt to regenerate the lost capture capacity of partially carbonated DFB sample. Hydration of the sintered DFB sample was successful in increasing the maximum capture capacity in the fast reaction regime to values almost as high as that of a fresh sample in its first carbonation cycle. Although more investigation is required to investigate the effect of hydration on the CaO particle morphology, a process modification to enhance the CO2 capture efficiency of the carbonator via particle hydration was proposed.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.