A framework demonstrating the application of inverse modeling technology for engine performance data matching is presented. Transient aero-thermodynamic cycle models are used to simulate engine performance and control characteristics over the entire flight envelope. These models are used not only for engine design and certification but also to provide performance guarantees to the customer and for engine diagnostics. Therefore, it is extremely important that these models are able to accurately predict the performance metrics of interest. Accuracy of these models can be improved by fine-tuning model parameters so that the model output best matches the flight test data. The performance of an aircraft engine is fine tuned from several sensor observations, e.g. exhaust gas temperature, fuel flow, and fan speed. These observations vary with parameters like power level, core speed and operating conditions like altitude, inlet conditions (temperature and pressure), and Mach number, and are used in conjunction with a transient performance simulation model to assess engine performance. This is normally achieved through an iterative manual approach that requires a lot of expert judgment. Simulating transient performance characteristics often requires an engineer to estimate model parameters by matching model response to engine sensor data. Such an estimation problem can be posed using inverse modeling technology. One of the main challenges in the application of inverse modeling for parameter estimation is that the problem can be ill-posed that leads to instability and non-uniqueness of the solution. The inverse method employed here for parameter estimation provides a solution for both well-posed and ill-posed problems. Sensitivity analysis can be used to better pose the data-matching problem. Singular value decomposition (SVD) technique is used to address the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem, which is solved as a finite dimensional non-linear optimization problem. Typically, the transient response is highly nonlinear and it may not be possible to match the whole transient simultaneously. This paper extends the framework on transient inverse modeling developed in  for engine transient performance applications. Variable weighting mechanism allows providing different weights to different sensors. This helps in better control on data matching, identify drift in parameter values over time, and point towards incorrect modeling assumptions. The application of the inverse methodology is demonstrated on a single spool non-afterburning engine and a commercial aviation engine model.
- International Gas Turbine Institute
Inverse Modeling Techniques for Application to Engine Transient Performance Data Matching
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Agarwal, H, Kale, A, Akkaram, S, Balasubramaniam, M, Ebacher, S, & Gilleberto, P. "Inverse Modeling Techniques for Application to Engine Transient Performance Data Matching." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2008: Power for Land, Sea, and Air. Volume 1: Aircraft Engine; Ceramics; Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels; Manufacturing, Materials and Metallurgy; Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery. Berlin, Germany. June 9–13, 2008. pp. 207-214. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2008-51313
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