Predictions of time-resolved flowfields are now commonplace within the gas-turbine industry, and the results of such simulations are often used to make design decisions during the development of new products. Hence it is necessary for design engineers to have a robust method to determine the level of convergence in design predictions. Here we report on a method developed to determine the level of convergence in a predicted flowfield that is characterized by periodic-unsteadiness. The method relies on fundamental concepts from digital signal processing including the discrete Fourier transform, cross-correlation, and Parseval’s theorem. Often in predictions of vane-blade interaction in turbomachines, the period of the unsteady fluctuations is expected. In this method, the development of time-mean quantities. Fourier components (both magnitude and phase), cross-correlations, and integrated signal power are tracked at locations of interest from one period to the next as the solution progresses. Each of these separate quantities yields some relative measure of convergence that is subsequently processed to form a fuzzy set. Thus the overall level of convergence in the solution is given by the intersection of these sets. Examples of the application of this technique to several predictions of unsteady flows from two separate solvers are given. These include a prediction of hot-streak migration as well as more typical cases. It is shown that the method yields a robust determination of convergence. Also, the results of the technique can guide further analysis and/or post-processing of the flowfield. Finally, the method is useful for the detection of inherent unsteadiness in the flowfield, and as such it can be used to prevent design escapes.
Assessing Convergence in Predictions of Periodic-Unsteady Flowfields
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Clark, JP, & Grover, EA. "Assessing Convergence in Predictions of Periodic-Unsteady Flowfields." Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2006: Power for Land, Sea, and Air. Volume 6: Turbomachinery, Parts A and B. Barcelona, Spain. May 8–11, 2006. pp. 1831-1841. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2006-90735
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