One of the last loss mechanisms remaining to be quantified and correlated for inclusion in meanline predictive systems concerns the mixing of wakes across downstream airfoil rows. Here, we demonstrate that the unsteady losses incurred as turbomachinery wakes mix in downstream rows are a function of the velocity ratio across the downstream row as calculated in the frame of reference of wake generation. Analytical and computational results, compared to measurements of wakes mixing under variable free-stream velocity conditions, reveal that wake-loss modification is primarily a result of an inviscid dilation of the stream tubes that comprise the wake fluid. Further, simulations of wakes exposed to a range of turbomachinery-specific velocity ratios indicate that wake-loss augmentation caused by stream-tube dilation is significantly more pronounced than wake-loss reductions imparted by stream-tube contraction. It is demonstrated that wakes in turbines are dilated in the adjacent downstream row, whether it is a vane or a blade row, through a work extraction process that occurs in the wake-generation reference frame. Finally, comparisons between rig data and CFD simulations suggest that wake-mixing losses, enhanced by downstream rows, can contribute as much as 1.5 percent of lost efficiency in multistage low-pressure turbines.

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