In the early development of gas turbines, many empirical design rules were used; for example in obtaining fluid deflection using the deviation from blading angles, in the assumption of zero radial velocities (so-called radial equilibrium) and in expressions for clearance loss (the Lakshminarayana formulae). The validity of some of these rules, and the basic fluid mechanics behind them, is examined by use of modern ideas and CFD codes. A current perspective of CFD in design is given, together with a view on future developments.

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