The secondary flows inside a sharp U-bend are numerically studied by using non-linear low Reynolds number (low-Re) kω model in which the cubic terms are included to represent the effects of extra strain-rates such as streamline curvature and three-dimensionality on both turbulence normal and turbulence shear stresses. The finite volume difference method incorporated with the higher-order bounded interpolation scheme has been employed in the present study. For the purpose of comparison, the predictions with the Launder-Sharma model (the linear low-Re kε model) are also given. The present results reveal that non-linear low-Re kω model and linear model produce the quite different secondary flow patterns. It is shown that the present non-linear model produces satisfactory predictions of the flow development inside the sharp U-bend comparing with linear Launder-Sharma model.

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