The surface integral method, an indirect boundary element method that represents a crack as a distribution of force dipoles, has been developed to model 3D nonplanar crack growth in complex structures. The finite body was effectively modeled by superposition of stress influence functions for a half-space. As a result of this strategy, only the fracture has to be discretized. Crack propagation was modeled using the maximum circumferential stress theory to predict crack direction and the Forman fatigue equation, modified with an equivalent stress intensity solution for mixed-mode, to predict extension. Comparisons with benchmark solutions and field data verified the computational methodology and defined the limits of its applicability.

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