To evaluate the dynamic operation and feasibility of designing and operating a self-sustainable hydrogen fueling station using renewable energy sources, system models for a hydrogen fueling station using a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and fuel cell have been developed to simulate the renewable sources and fueling dynamics together with hydrogen production and station operation. Theoretical models have been integrated to simulate station performance when subjected to measured power and fueling demand dynamics from a public fueling station and measured renewable energy supply dynamics. The theoretical models that are integrated into various self-sustainable station design configurations include a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and PEM fuel cell, hydrogen compressor, and storage tank. The fueling dynamics and power consumption dynamics were obtained from an operating public hydrogen fueling station and implemented in the system model. Various control strategies are simulated and the station performance is determined to depend upon the way renewable power is utilized in the station. Due to the round trip efficiency penalty associated with converting electricity to hydrogen (in an electrolyzer) and vice versa (in a fuel cell), the results suggest that the station operation power should be supplied by the renewable sources directly whenever possible, and that the hydrogen fuel cell should provide power only when there is no renewable power available (the third control strategy tested in this paper). The simulated hydrogen fueling station powered by 200 kW wind turbines or 360 kW solar PV were determined to successfully operate in a self-sustainable manner while dispensing ∼25 kg of hydrogen per day. This study provides insights regarding the sizing of the station components such as renewable energy conversion devices, electrolyzer and fuel cell, and storage tank. The cost of the hydrogen was determined to be $8.01 per kg when the station is powered by 200 kW of wind turbines and operated using control strategy 3, while it increased to $20.22 per kg when the station is powered by 360 kW of PV array and operated using control strategy 3. This study provides a basis for achieving self-sustainable renewable hydrogen fueling stations. With further optimization and development, these self-sustainable renewable hydrogen fueling stations could provide valuable interconnections (especially in remote locations) throughout the hydrogen infrastructure network and further support the integration of renewable sources for vehicle fuels.
- Advanced Energy Systems Division
Dynamic Analysis of a Self-Sustainable Renewable Hydrogen Fueling Station
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Zhao, L, Brouwer, J, & Samuelsen, S. "Dynamic Analysis of a Self-Sustainable Renewable Hydrogen Fueling Station." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 12th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology collocated with the ASME 2014 8th International Conference on Energy Sustainability. ASME 2014 12th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology. Boston, Massachusetts, USA. June 30–July 2, 2014. V001T02A001. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FuelCell2014-6330
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