During operation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs), electro-chemical reactions generate water, which exists as a liquid because of the PEFMC’s low operating temperature. The water remains in the PEFMC after it is turned off. During the winter this water can freeze; associated increase in its volume deforms the gas diffusion layer (GDL). The deformed GDL reduces the cell’s power output and durability. In this investigation, X-ray microscopy was used demonstrate that water freezing changed the geometry of GDL by water freezing.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.