In this study, a 3-D Volume of Fluid (VOF) model has been developed to simulate the liquid water formation and transport with phase-change effects in real-time operation of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). By applying mass-transfer process incorporated with interface tracking algorithm of VOF method, this model provides the numerical visualization of formation, deformation, and removal processes of liquid water in the channels and porous media of PEMFC. The simulation results indicate that liquid water can be formed in certain regions in both the channel and porous media. The water amounts due to condensation/evaporation are quantitatively determined by the phase change rate among other factors. This approach and its results show that a real-time operation of a PEMFC can be numerically simulated along with experimental visualization.

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