Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are expected to play a significant role in the next generation of energy systems and road vehicles for transportation. To achieve high performance, low cost and high reliability, significant attention is needed on detailed modeling and simulation of various physical processes in PEMFC unit-cells. Substantial effort is also required to reach proper water and thermal balances for PEMFC stacks and integrated energy systems. For modeling and analysis at the unit-cell and component level, typically CFD-based approaches might be appropriate. On the stack and system levels, methods like lumped parameter analysis and overall energy/mass balances are more suitable. This paper discusses various kinds of methods for modeling and analysis, and how these can be used as well as their applicability and limitations. The focus is placed on water management/two-phase flow regimes and characteristics of relevant models.

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