The objective of this review is to bring together results from experimental studies to better understand issues and the role of catalyst types and supports in the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. Fuel conversion, selectivity and carbon formation as function of type of support, metal, dispersion and temperature are presented. Reaction mechanisms for syn-gas (a mixture of CO and H2) production and formation of inactive carbon are reviewed. This review resulted in two primary conclusions: 1) Catalyst supports based on oxygen-ion conductors such as doped ceria may be used to mitigate carbon formation due to their high oxygen mobility; and 2) A more detailed and comprehensive study of these systems leading to mechanistic understanding may be of significant benefit in developing low-cost, effective, and long-duration reforming catalysts for POM and possibly higher hydrocarbon fuels.

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