A variety of LDV experiments were conducted to assess the influence of solids loading, Reynolds number and particle size distribution on velocity fluctuations and flow behavior in gas-particle systems. This talk will summarize those experimental findings, as well as show comparisons of experimental results with multiphase CFD model predictions that utilize concepts from kinetic theory to describe particle velocity fluctuations. In order to probe solids loading effects, an axisymmetric particle-laden jet was investigated using LDV for 70 micron glass beads with solids loadings ranging from one to thirty. Dilute conditions are characterized by isotropic particle r.m.s. velocities and decreases in the magnitude of the r.m.s. velocities as the solids loading increases. Particle clustering is observed for dense conditions as well as anisotropy between axial and radial particle r.m.s. velocities. Under dense conditions, increases in the solids loading lead to increases in the axial particle r.m.s. velocity while the radial r.m.s. velocity remains at a constant level. Gas-solids flow models display good agreement between predictions and experimental measurements of mean velocities of the gas and solids as well as modulation of the gas turbulent kinetic energy by the presence of the particles. However, the gas-solid flow models based on kinetic theory concepts consistently overpredict the particle r.m.s. velocity for the range of solids loadings investigated. In addition, the same axisymmetric particle-laden jet consisting of 70-micron glass beads was investigated for a range of Reynolds numbers with a constant mass loading (m = 0.7). The presence of the solids dampens the gas turbulence intensity at the lowest value of Re investigated (8,300) compared with single-phase flow at the same Re. As the Reynolds number increases, the gas turbulence increases and for Re ≥ 15,200 the turbulence is enhanced compared with the single-phase flow at the same Re. The observed trend in turbulence modulation with Reynolds number is possibly due to the segregation of the solids and their effect on the gas mean velocity profiles. Finally, the particle-laden jet was investigated for binary mixtures of 25 and 70-micron glass beads. Specifically, the effect of a bimodal PSD on the modulation of gas-phase turbulence, the particle rms velocity, and particle segregation patterns was explored in detail. Measurements and model predictions indicate that increasing the mass fraction of the finer particles dampens the gas-phase turbulence. Changes in the random motion of the coarser particles are observed upon the addition of the finer material; clusters of fine particles arise for the largest solids loading investigated, and these clusters increase both the mean and fluctuating velocities of the coarse particles. The particles are also observed to segregate by size and volume fraction, with the coarse particles tending towards the center of the pipe.

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